[amsat-bb] ANS-265

Joe Spier wao at vfr.net
Sat Sep 21 23:41:13 PDT 2013


The AMSAT News Service bulletins are a free, weekly news and infor-
mation service of AMSAT North America, The Radio Amateur Satellite
Corporation. ANS publishes news related to Amateur Radio in Space
including reports on the activities of a worldwide group of Amateur
Radio operators who share an active interest in designing, building,
launching and communicating through analog and digital Amateur Radio

The news feed on http://www.amsat.org publishes news of Amateur
Radio in Space as soon as our volunteers can post it.

Please send any amateur satellite news or reports to:
ans-editor at amsat.org.

In this edition:

* 2013 AMSAT-NA Board of Directors Election Results Announced
* Final Call for Papers for the 2013 AMSAT Annual Meeting and Space 
* NASA Internship Opportunities for Spring 2014
* PSK-31 Transponder Needed for Launch Opportunity
* Dutch Amateur Radio Satellite User Day – September 28, 2013
* AMSAT-DL Satellite Symposium October 5
* AMSAT-SM compares FUNcube Dongle Pro+ and RTL SDR’s
* Australian ham radio BLUEsat satellite in the press
* Canadian ConSat-1 CubeSat
* ISS Ham Video launch campaign
* Amateur Radio in Space: Radio Amateurs Headed to, Return From ISS
* ARISS News
* Satellite Shorts From All Over

SB SAT @ AMSAT $ANS-265.01
ANS-265 AMSAT News Service Weekly Bulletins

AMSAT News Service Bulletin 265.01
Septenber 22, 2013
BID: $ANS-265.01


2013 AMSAT-NA Board of Directors Election Results Announced

As a result of the 2013 Board of Directors Election, Barry Baines, WD4ASW;
Tony Monteiro, AA2TX, Alan Biddle, WA4SCA, and Mark Hammond, N8MH, will 
on the board for two years. The first alternate is JoAnne Maenpaa, 
K9JKM, and
the second alternate is Steve Coy, K8UD. The results of the voting with 688
ballots cast are as follows;

Barry Baines, WD4ASW          521
Tony Monteiro, AA2TX           518
Alan Biddle. WA4SCA             424
Mark Hammond, N8MH        365

JoAnne Maenpaa, K9JK          316
Steve Coy, K8UD                     186

Frank Griffin, K4FEG              158
Bryan Klofas, KF6ZEO            141

[ANS thanks Martha at the AMSAT Office for the above information]


Final Call for Papers for the 2013 AMSAT Annual Meeting and Space Symposium

This is the final call for papers for the 2013 AMSAT Annual Meeting and 
Symposium to be held on the weekend of November 1 - 3, 2013, at the Marriott
Hobby Airport Hotel, Houston, Texas. Proposals for papers, symposium
presentations and poster presentations are invited on any topic of 
interest to
the amateur satellite community. We request a tentative title of your
presentation as soon as possible, with final copy to be submitted by 
October 5
for inclusion in the printed proceedings. Abstracts and papers should be 
to Dan Schultz at n8fgv at amsat.org

[ANS thanks Dan Schultz, N8FGV, for the above announcement]


NASA Internship Opportunities for Spring 2014

The NASA One Stop Shopping Initiative, or OSSI, strives to provide
students at all institutions of higher education access to a portfolio
of internship, fellowship and scholarship opportunities offered by
NASA mission directorates and centers.

Visit the Office of Education Infrastructure Division LaunchPad to
find information on internship, fellowship and scholarship
opportunities. The site features the OSSI online application for
recruiting NASA Interns, Fellows and Scholars, or NIFS. This
innovative system allows students to search and apply for all types of
higher-education NASA internship, fellowship and scholarship
opportunities in one location. A single application places the student
in the applicant pool for consideration by all NASA mentors.

Applications for spring 2014 opportunities are due Oct. 11, 2013.

To find available opportunities and to fill out an OSSI online
application for recruiting NIFS, visit https://intern.nasa.gov.

Inquiries about the OSSI should be submitted via

[ANS thanks NASA Education Express Message -- Sept. 19, 2013 for the
above information]


PSK-31 Transponder Needed for Launch Opportunity

On the AMSAT Bulletin Board (AMSAT-BB) Bob Bruninga WB4APR writes:

If someone will build a linear PSK-31 transponder, I have a launch 
in 9 months.

All it needs to be is a PSK-31 Linear receiver on 28.120 MHz (3 kHz 
with AGC coupled to a downlink UHF FM transmitter of about 1 Watt. 
Should fit
on a 3.5? square card. This is the same as Brno University of Technology has
built for prior missions of PCSAT2 on the ISS back in 2006 and the two 
on the
shelf awaiting flights.

Flight delivery by May 2014 (9 months from now).

Brno University, may not have the people to make a third one for this new
flight opportunity.

Just a thought for someone looking for a project.

PSK-31 Transponder Concept

[ANS thanks AMSAT-BB, AMSAT-UK, and Bob Bruninga, WB4APR for the above


Dutch Amateur Radio Satellite User Day – September 28, 2013

On Saturday, September 28, 2013 the very first Amateur Radio Satellite User
Day will be held.

The event will  take place at restaurant ”Binnenhof”, in the small town of
Paasloo, in the North of the Netherlands, a 90 minute drive by car from

Join us!
We invite everyone to come over and join us! For both newbies as well as
experienced satellite operators it will be an exciting day with interesting
presentations as well as exciting activities!

Two Dutch satellite builders will talk about their latest satellites, that
both will be launched in November: FUNcube-1 (Wouter Weggelaar – PA3WEG) and
Delfi-n3Xt (Jasper Bouwmeester). Both projects will take along with them
engineering models: a great opportunity to see yourself how small and 
Cubesats look like!

Furthermore we have many hands-on sessions planned: take your own radio and
antenna to Paasloo, we can help you get started or you can compare yours to
that of the others!

Of course this is a fantastic opportunity to ‘meet and great’ each other in
person. The OSCAR lunch has a lot of time reserved for that as well. The 
day is free of charge, including coffee and lunch. From those that want 
to stay
for the Barbecue at the end of the day we ask a contribution of 17,50 euro.

For those that cannot come over to the Netherlands: meet us during one 
of the
on-air hands-on sessions (see the program details below).

10:00     Arrival
Coffee and tea, registration

10:30 – 10:45     Hands-on session VO-52
Listen to, and maybe even make a QSO via, the strongest linear transponder
currently in space. We do have a low elevation pass, need to check line-of-
sight.  2m/70cm SSB transponder, maximum elevation 11 degrees

10:45 – 11:00     Welcome
Opening of both the “VHF-day” and the “Amateur Radio Satellite User Day”

10:43 – 11:02     Hands-on session HO-68
Listening to the CW downlink signals of this Chinese satellite. Its linear
transponder is no longer functional, but its beacon is great fun to 
with for reception of amateur radio satellites. Examples include testing and
comparing different types of antennas. 70 cm CW beacon. Maximum 
elevation: 49

11:04 – 11:24     Hands-on session FO-29
Listening to, and maybe make a QSO via, the linear transponder of this
satellite. A very distant satellite for portable equipment, but with a 
bit of effort and luck we should be able to hear our own signals back on
downlink. 2m/70cm SSB transponder. Maximum elevation: 73 degrees.

11:30 – 11:35     Welcome Amateur Radio Satellite User Day
Opening of the very first Amateur Radio Satellite User Day in The 

11:35 – 12:15     FUNcube-1 – A new satellite revealed (Wouter Weggelaar –
A presentation by one of the builders, about the technology used in 
a project of a series of organizations, including AMSAT-UK. Due to the 
launch (now planned for November) FUNcube-1 is not yet in space during the
event, but very likely Wouter will bring along the functional 
of FUNcube-1. A presentation you don’t want to miss!

12:15 – 13:00     Amateur Radio Satellites step-by-step, for newbies and
experienced operators! (Ivo Klinkert – PA1IVO and Henk Hamoen – PA3GUO)
An introduction into orbits of LEO/HEO-satellites and how to predict their
passes. We will also talk about which kind of equipment is needed to 
via amateur radio satellites. So, a talk on TLE, AOS, LOS, TCA, Kepler and
Doppler, RHCP, LHCP, PCs, Antennes, TRX, SDR and Cubesat CW beacons. 
While this
session addresses the basics of satellite communications, we invite the more
experienced operators to share their experiences during the presentation as
well. For example which software they use, which satellites are 
favorite, which
antennas and rotators are being used… and: which transceivers are most 

13:00 – 13:45     Hands-on session FUNcube-1 Engineering model
Most likely it will be possible to make in Paasloo QSO’s via the transponder
of the engineering-model of FUNcube-1. A fun exercise or simply a lot of fun
with a satellite of which we really control when it is within reach! 2m/70cm
SSB transponder.

13:00 – 14:00     OSCAR-lunch
Extended buffet lunch buffet, where the objective is to meet and great your
fellow radio amateurs that share the same interest amateur radio 
satellites. At
the same time a demonstration of the famous FUNcube Dongle and equipment 
Arrow antennas, LVB-tracker, etc.

13:45 – 14:15     Hands-on session LO-19
Receiving the downlink signals of the satellite. Even though this satellite
has gone through some rough situations up there in space, we can still 
hear a
very strong (continues) carrier in the 70cm band. A great opportunity to
observe the Doppler-effect and to experience how large this effect is at
different stages of a pass. Or: compare again the performance of the 
antennas that will be brought by visitors. 70 cm constant carrier. Maximum
elevation: 59 degrees

14:15 – 15:00     Delfi-n3Xt (Jasper Bouwmeester – Program Manager TU/d)
An update on the status of the next Dutch satellite of the University of 
(TU/d), which will be launched in November. Also here a lot of interesting
hardware will be shown, including the engineering model of the S-band
transmitter, the positioning system and the VHF/UHF antennas.

15:00 – 15:15     Radio Amateurs and scientific satellites (Henk Hamoen –
How radio amateurs can contribute to scientific research in satellite
projects. No QSOs therefore, but rather support of science in space.

15:15 – 15:35     A portable, multi-functional satellite station (Ivo 
A presentation on a portable satellite station for radio communications 
low earth orbit (LEO) satellites, multi-mode, including S-band reception.

15:35 – 15:45     How to apply for an ARISS school contact (Bertus Hüsken –
How to apply for a school contact with the International Space Station (ISS)
via ARISS.

15:45 – 16:00     AMSAT-NL (Wouter Weggelaar – PA3WEG, Chairman AMSAT-NL)
How and why AMSAT-NL was founded.

16:00 – 16:15     Future of the “Amateur Radio Satellite User Day” (Ivo –
PA1IVO en Henk – PA3GUO)
Evaluation and gathering of ideas for the event next year.

16:15     Closure
BBQ for those that upfront signed up.

18:23 – 18:35     Hands-on session VO-52
For those that can get enough of it! 2m/70cm SSB transponder. Maximum
elevation: 30 degrees.

Much more information (for example regarding registration) is available on
this website:

See you all in Paasloo!
Ivo Klinkert – PA1IVO and Henk Hamoen – PA3GUO

[ANS thanks AMSAT-UK, for the above information]


AMSAT-DL Satellite Symposium October 5

The AMSAT-DL satellite symposium and AGM will be held in Bochum, Germany on
October 5, 2013.

The AMSAT Deutschland Facebook page says “There will be certainly some
exciting news!”

AMSAT-DL Symposium lecture schedule

Saturday 05.10.2013
10:15 – 10:30 Welcome
10:30 – 11:15 Stereo A / B status and Turbo Code introduction, experience
report by Mario Lorenz, DL5MLO
11:15 – 11:45 Coffee break
11:45 – 12:15 Asteroid Defense by Wolfgang Wittholt, Fernuni Hagen
12:15 – 12:45 Space Generantion Advisory Council (SGAC) Small Satellite
Project Group (SSPG) presentation and objectives by Dennis Mattes
12:45 – 14:00 Lunch break
14:00 Current and new projects / project progress / etc then an official 
of the AGM with elections.

AMSAT-DL event announcement

[ANS thanks AMSAT-UK, for the above information]


AMSAT-SM compares FUNcube Dongle Pro+ and RTL SDR’s

AMSAT-SM has published a comparison of the FUNcube Dongle Pro+ and the 
dongle based software defined radio.

The FCD Pro+ costs about 10 times the price of the RTL TV Dongle. While the
FCD Pro+ has a far wider frequency coverage enabling reception of LF, MF 
and HF
are there any other differences ?

Read the AMSAT-SM comparison in Google English at

The FUNcube Dongle (FCD) Software Defined Radio (SDR) was originally 
for educational outreach as part of the ground segment for the FUNcube
satellite. A proportion of the sales of the FCD goes to support AMSAT-UK’s
FUNcube satellite.

You can join the FCDProPlus Yahoo Group by following these steps:
• Send a blank email to fcdproplus-subscribe at yahoogroups.co.uk
• Yahoo will send you an email in response, you may need to check your SPAM
• Click on the link in the email, this will bring up a Yahoo page in your
• On the Yahoo page ignore the big Join link in the middle and click on the
link at the bottom of the page instead, it says: “As an alternate 
option, you
may join the mailing list instead.”
• You should then be a member of the group.

Some of the SDR decoding programs available include:
• SDR Sharp (SDR#) http://sdrsharp.com/
• SDR-Radio http://www.sdr-radio.com/
• HDSDR http://www.hdsdr.de/

FUNcube Dongle Pro+ LF/MF/HF/VHF/UHF Software Defined Radio Video

FUNcube Dongle Pro+ http://www.FUNcubeDongle.com/

RTL TV Dongle SDR http://www.essexham.co.uk/news/realtek-sdr-pc-dongle-for-

[ANS thanks AMSAT-UK, for the above information]


Australian ham radio BLUEsat satellite in the press

The Daily Advertiser newspaper reports the University of New South Wales
(UNSW) undergraduate amateur radio satellite project has been given the 
tick of
approval to have a stratospheric balloon test flight in Wagga.

The Basic Low Earth Orbit UNSW Experimental Satellite, better known as
BLUEsat, will undergo a test flight in April ahead of its launch into space.

BLUEsat, a 260mm cube weighing around 13 kilograms, will carry a flight
computer with transmissions to include a beacon and amateur packet radio 
the AX.25 packet radio protocol in a “mode J” VHF/UHF configuration.

Once in orbit BLUEsat will be a digital amateur radio satellite, which means
that voice and data files can be uploaded to it by any amateur radio 
in the world over which the satellite passes.

Read the Daily Advertiser article – Satellite project to reach new heights

Australia’s own BLUEsat ready for launch

BLUEsat on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/bluesat.unsw

Basic Low Earth Orbit UNSW Experimental Satellite (BLUEsat) project

[ANS thanks AMSAT-UK, for the above information]


Canadian ConSat-1 CubeSat

The Canadian ConSat-1 3U CubeSat aims to analyze radiation 
characteristics in
the South-Atlantic Anomaly, and test technology payloads.

Canada is an Associate Member of the European Space Agency (ESA) and 
is one of the educational CubeSats chosen for Phase 1 of the ‘Fly Your
Satellite!’ initiative.

The ‘Fly Your Satellite!’ initiative builds on the success of the ‘CubeSats
for the Vega Maiden Flight’ pilot program. This culminated in 2012 with the
launch of seven student-built CubeSats on the first flight of the new 
ESA Vega

The South-Atlantic Anomaly is a plasma cloud 200 km from the Earth’s 
located above the east coast of South America. It appears to be constantly
growing in size and a NASA report speculates that by 2240 it might cover
approximately half the southern hemisphere.


ConSat-1 plans to look at various aspects of the plasma cloud: its
temperature, its atomic and molecular composition, its density, and its 
The team hope to produce meaningful data which shows the ever-changing
characteristics of this extra-spatial hazard.

ESA announce six CubeSats chosen for Phase 1

ESA ‘Fly Your Satellite’ Initiative

Wiki – South-Atlantic Anomaly

[ANS thanks AMSAT-UK, for the above information]


ISS Ham Video launch campaign

The ARISS DATV transmitter, dubbed “Ham Video”, already onboard the
International Space Station, will soon be installed in the Columbus 
module and

Commissioning will be done in several steps, each during a full pass of the
ISS over the Matera ground station (see Bulletin 2). It is not yet known if
these passes will be chosen in close succession, or if they will cover 
weeks. ARISS proposes ESA to operate so called “blank” transmissions 
during the
commissioning period. If this is accepted, it means that Ham Video will
transmit permanently without camera. The camera will not be used because 
it is
fed on batteries and servicing it would need prohibitive crew time.
Transmitting recordings is part of a future project, but not available

Although ground stations will receive a black image without audio, “blank”
transmissions contain all information needed for the setting up and the fine
tuning of the station. Moreover, collected data will be used for a 
study of the ARISS L/S-band antennas as well as for an evaluation of the 

For this launch campaign, ARISS addresses a call for collaboration to the
amateur radio community, especially to the operators interested in space
communications. Several satellite operators have shown interest.

Ham Video technical characteristics are available at www.ariss-eu.org  .
Suggestions and useful addresses for the setting up of a Ham Video ground
station are also provided.

Among the components of  a satellite ground station, the antenna system 
is the
most expensive. High gain antennas are needed, moved by azimuth and 
motors and driven by an appropriate computer program. For Ham Video 
a 1.2m dish with precision tracking is recommended. A station compliant with
the recommendations provided in the aforementioned reference text should be
capable of 3 to 4 minutes of DATV reception during a pass of the ISS. AO-40
operators who still have an S-band dish can now use it for Ham Video.

On the other hand, interesting data can be gathered by stations with a much
simpler setup. A dish with a self made helix feed could be used without 
This antenna could be positioned in a fixed direction, determined before 
a pass
of the ISS, pointing to the position of the ISS at closest approach, which
corresponds to the maximum elevation of the space station during the 
pass. With
the setup as described hereunder, 1 to 2 minutes of solid reception of 
the Ham
Video signal should be possible.

Call for participation to the Ham Video launch campaign

ARISS addresses a call to amateur radio experimenters who would like to
participate to the Ham Video launch campaign.

Data gathering during the initial “blank” transmissions is important and the
help of volunteering operators will be most appreciated.
More details to follow.

It is to be noted that builders of the hereunder proposed “Simple Station”
could later update their equipment and add tracking motors. Chained stations
will be needed for ARISS Ham TV school contacts. Video and audio from 
the ISS
will be web streamed to the schools over the Internet.

We will keep you informed of these developments. For the time being, as a
starter, let us concentrate on receiving “blank” transmissions.

All Ham TV Bulletins are available at www.ariss-eu.org

[ANS thanks Gaston Bertels, ON4WF, and AMSAT-UK, for the above information]


Amateur Radio in Space: Radio Amateurs Headed to, Return From ISS

NASA astronaut Mike Hopkins, KF5LJG, and Russian cosmonauts Oleg Kotov and
Sergey Ryzanskiy are scheduled to launch aboard a Soyuz spacecraft 
September 25
to join their Expedition 37 crewmates aboard the International Space 
Hopkins will be the first member of the 2009 NASA astronaut class to fly 
space. While he's aboard the ISS, Hopkins will install the Amateur Radio 
on the
International Space Station (ARISS) Ham Video gear, although that is 
a low-priority assignment.

Hopkins will join Expedition 37 Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin, RN3FI, and 
Engineers Karen Nyberg, and Luca Parmitano, KF5KDP. Yurchikhin, Nyberg, and
Parmitano arrived in May and will return to Earth in November.

Meanwhile, US Astronaut Chris Cassidy, KF5KDR, and Russian Cosmonaut and
Expedition 36 Commander Pavel Vinogradov, RV3BS, came safely back to 
Earth from
the ISS September 11 aboard a Soyuz capsule. Cosmonaut and Flight Engineer
Alexander Misurkin rounded out the trio that landed in Kazakhstan after 166
days in space.

A day earlier, Vinogradov handed over command of the ISS to another radio
amateur, Cosmonaut and Flight Engineer Fyodor Yurchikhin, RN3FI, in a
traditional change-of-command ceremony in the Zvezda service module.

[ANS thanks the September 19, 2013 ARRL Letter for the above link]



An International Space Station school contact has been planned with
participants at Sarnelli De Donato Middle School, Polignano a Mare, 
Bari, Italy
on 21 Sept. The event is scheduled to begin at approximately 10:03 UTC. The
duration of the contact is approximately 9 minutes and 30 seconds. The 
will be a telebridge between NA1SS and W6SRJ. The contact should be audible
over the west coast and adjacent areas of the U.S. Interested parties are
invited to listen in on the 145.80 MHz downlink. The contact is expected 
to be
conducted in Italian.

"Sarnelli De Donato" School is a middle school. It serves the educational
needs of the town because it is the only middle school in town. It 
caters for
boys and girls, aged 11-14. Located in one of the region's tourist 
areas, it is
in the suburbs of the pleasant town of Polignano a Mare, in the 
south-east of
the APULIA region, south-east of Italy. In its Curriculum the school 
focus on:
Space Communication, Media Communication, the Environment, Science 
in lab. The school has a gym, an auditorium, a music room, two computer 
a new scientific laboratory, a video room, 22 classrooms. At present 
there are
526 students on roll and they attend the regular class daily, from 8.00 
am to
1.00 pm.

Participants will ask as many of the following questions (translated) as 

1.  What sensation do you standing there in the void thinking that 

     around is infinite?

2.  How do they appear from the space station celestial bodies: sun, 

     moon, stars?

3.  The astronauts on the Space Station as they do not understand if it is

     night or day on Earth?

4.  A drop of water that is lost in the air is dangerous for the electronic

     equipment on board?

5.  What are the immediate benefits for humanity arising from the 
results of

     the experiments of  your space missions?

6.  The Risk factor aboard the Space Station can change by virtue of the

     activities that you carry?

7.  In a simple way how can be explained the force that keeps the ISS in


8.  The infinity of space that surrounds you bring you closer to the 
image of

     a "Creator God"?

9.  The extraordinary figure of astrophysics Margherita Hack has influenced

     your training program as an astronaut?

10. How do you live the danger that a meteorite will collide with the

     International Space  Station?

11. Assuming the distant future of man in space, the absence of gravity 

     evolve as the  appearance of man?

12. What factors determine the residence time of 6 months on the Space


13. Assuming that the trajectory of a meteor crosses the Earth's orbit, 

     contribution can the Space Station for safety on Earth?

14. From space failed to observe atmospheric phenomena and to provide those

     disasters such as tornadoes or tsunamis?

15. If the man in the distant future "inhabit" the space as it will change

     your perception of spatial and temporal distances?

16. This mission how is for you example of an expression of brotherhood and

     cooperation among people of different countries?

17. An 'possible for you direct contact with the family over the internet?

18. How much you exercise in Star City before you leave?

19. What specific astronomical events you witnessed during your stay on the


20. Will it be possible in the future for a person who is not an astronaut

     traveling to visit and remain on the ISS?


       Sign up for the SAREX maillist at


       Visit ARISS on Facebook. We can be found at Amateur Radio on the

       International Space Station (ARISS).

       To receive our Twitter updates, follow @ARISS_status

  Next planned event(s):

    1.  Scuola Media Statale "Salvo D'Acquisto", Cesano  Maderno, Italy,

        telebridge via VK5ZAI, Tue, 24Sept2013,  10:18 UTC

        Watch for possible last minute cancellation.

    2.  College de la Combraille, La Mouniaude  Chatelguyon,  France,

        telebridge via VK5ZAI, Sat, 28Sept2013, 08:39 UTC

ARISS is an international educational outreach program partnering the
participating space agencies, NASA, Russian Space Agency, ESA, CNES, 
JAXA, and
CSA, with the AMSAT and IARU organizations from participating countries.

ARISS offers an opportunity for students to experience the excitement of
Amateur Radio by talking directly with crewmembers on-board the 
Space Station. Teachers, parents and communities see, first hand, how 
Radio and crewmembers on ISS can energize youngsters' interest in science,
technology, and learning. Further information on the ARISS program is 
on the website http://www.ariss.org/ (graciously hosted by the Radio 
of Canada).

[ANS thanks David, AA4KN for the above information]


Satellite Shorts From All Over

NASA/AMSAT Mentors Still Making News

Pat Kilroy N8PK, the group’s mentor, is an AMSAT area coordinator for
Maryland/Washington DC. See:




[ANS thanks Southgate ARC, for the above information]

Space Weather's Effects on Satellites

MIT  Study of interest to the satellite  community:

[ANS thanks Les Rayburn, N1LF, and Spacedaily.com for the above information]



In addition to regular membership, AMSAT offers membership in the
President's Club. Members of the President's Club, as sustaining
donors to AMSAT Project Funds, will be eligible to receive addi-
tional benefits. Application forms are available from the AMSAT

Primary and secondary school students are eligible for membership
at one-half the standard yearly rate. Post-secondary school students
enrolled in at least half time status shall be eligible for the stu-
dent rate for a maximum of 6 post-secondary years in this status.
Contact Martha at the AMSAT Office for additional student membership

This week's ANS Editor,
Joe Spier, K6WAO
k6wao at amsat dot org

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