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The liftoff of the STS-9 Space Shuttle mission 15 years ago this past week ushered in a new, pioneering era of Amateur Radio in space. On November 28, 1983, the Space Shuttle Columbia lifted off from Launch Pad 39 with great anticipation, excitement and fanfare from the entire International Amateur Radio community.
On-board this flight was veteran astronaut and Amateur Radio operator Owen Garriott, W5LFL. With him was the first human-operated Amateur Radio station in space, a Motorola 2-meter FM handheld transceiver and a window-mounted antenna. W5LFL also had interface cabling to record the much anticipated in-orbit contacts.
Roy Neal, K6DUE, Chairman of the SAREX Working Group, remembers it well:
"We were given a golden opportunity by NASA. The opportunity to show the world what happens when you marry Amateur Radio and space flight. So we set out to deliver the maximum number of contacts worldwide -- and Owen delivered. He talked with hams from every walk of life, from King Hussein of Jordan, to entire groups of amateurs who had gathered in England, the United States, Germany, Australia and Japan. He delivered contacts that were sparkling in their clarity and outstanding in their content. They gave us the thrill of working the ultimate DX."
Owen's first ham radio contact --with Lance Collister, WA1JXN, (now W7GJ) of Frenchtown, Montana-- opened the door for the general public to talk to an orbiting space crew. Prior to this historic moment, only Mission Control, Presidents, heads of state, and other high-ranking dignitaries were given this opportunity. By the time his ten-day flight was completed, Owen had made 2-way contact with over 300 hams around the globe. W5LFL's flight provided tens of thousands of hams their first opportunity to receive radio signals from an orbiting space vehicle. In addition, many school students participated in mission activities and heard the W5LFL downlink signals live in their classrooms.
Rosalie White, WA1STO, head of the ARRL's Educational Activities Department and a member of the SAREX Working Group stated:
"The first ham in space mission with Owen on-board was not planned to be a school group educational activity -- it was really an opportunity to make amateur radio shine -- however, the tremendous excitement generated by ham radio in space and the interest in linking SAREX with education eventually snowballed into quality educational events."
Since its modest beginnings on STS-9 in 1983, the SAREX payload has become the most 'frequent flyer' payload in the Space Shuttle Program. To date, SAREX has flown on 24 Space Shuttle Missions, about 25% of the entire Shuttle missions flown to date. This feat could not have been accomplished without the support of the NASA Astronaut Office and the volunteer trainers at the NASA Johnson Space Center who work with astronauts to help them become licensed Amateur Radio operators. "So far we have 86 astronauts that have achieved ham radio license status," says Matt Bordelon, KC5BTL, the SAREX Principal Investigator at JSC. "Now," he added, "we're well on the way to flying some very sophisticated hardware in the International Space Station."
The SAREX program has had an opportunity to accomplish a number of pioneering firsts for ham in space and for NASA operations. These include:
** The first uplink and downlink of SSTV pictures on the STS-51F flight in 1985 with Tony England, W0ORE
** The first computer-to-computer radio link (Packet Radio) on the STS-35 flight with Ron Parise, WA4SIR, in 1990
** The first video uplink on the 1991 STS-37 flight with Commander Ken Cameron, KB5AWP, operating the station
** The first round-trip video on STS-56 in 1993 and the first backup communications during a TDRSS satellite outage with the STS-47 mission in 1992
The SAREX Payload is primarily flown as an educational outreach activity. Hundreds of schools have had a pre-scheduled interview with an orbiting crewmember and tens of thousands of students have participated directly in the hundreds of pre-scheduled contacts. The educational activities that schools have initiated prior to and after a SAREX educational event have spanned the entire spectrum of ideas -- including developing a 'Shuttle Bus', complete with an Amateur Radio 'Mission Control' inside, sponsoring ham radio classes for Students, participating in the joint SAREX/SAFEX antenna test on the STS-55 mission and providing direct uplink/downlink support to other schools as a Telebridge Amateur Radio station.
The launch of the Mir space station in 1986 opened additional U.S.-based ham radio operations in space. Ship-to-ship contacts were accomplished by several U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts using SAREX and the ham radio equipment on Mir. These were accomplished long before NASA and the Russian Space Agency decided on a partnership for the International Space Station. When U.S. astronauts had extended stays on the Mir space station, ham radio was an important component of their day-to-day activities. Through the cooperation and support of the Amateur Radio communities in Russia, Germany and the United States, the U.S. astronauts were granted permission to use the ham gear on Mir. The astronauts used the radio equipment to communicate with hams on the ground, with their friends and family and with SAREX-selected schools. In fact Mike Foale, KB5UAC, who operated on several previous SAREX Shuttle missions (STS-37 and STS-56), used the ham radio station on Mir to communicate the status of Mir and the welfare of the crew after the Spektr module collided with the spacecraft in June 1997.
Since the time of W5LFL's flight 15 years ago, the internationally-based human spaceflight radio community has done many tremendous things both for Amateur Radio and for education. Frank Bauer, KA3HDO, AMSAT-NA Vice President for Human Spaceflight Programs, reflected his sentiments of this historic event:
"I want to take this opportunity to thank and to congratulate the hundreds of volunteers around the world who have taken the dream that was shared by Owen, the ARRL, AMSAT-NA and NASA, and turned it into a reality that has benefited the worldwide community of radio amateurs as well as students in classrooms. Through your efforts, we have Amateur Radio stations that have flown on Space Shuttles and on Mir, and we are on the threshold of installing a permanent Amateur Radio station on ISS".
Frank continued, "On behalf of the SAREX Working Group and as a U.S. delegate to the Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) program, I look forward to the continued cooperation of all the international partners that comprise ARISS -- as we jointly forge a new, exciting future for Amateur Radio in space".
To all those who have made SAREX such a tremendous success and to Owen Garriott, W5LFL, who helped start it all -- thank you and congratulations!
[ANS thanks Frank Bauer, KA3HDO, AMSAT-NA Vice President/Human Spaceflight Programs, the SAREX Working Group, NASA, and the ARRL for making a wonderful dream come true for many Amateur Radio operators the world over]
Good news! Chris Jackson, G7UPN / ZL2TPO, tells ANS that TMSAT-1 (TO-31) is now open for general access by Amateur Radio operators worldwide. Chris tells ANS that TMSAT commissioning has been completed and it shows that most of the spacecraft systems are operating correctly. Normal access will allow operators to use the store and forward communications on the spacecraft, and also download the high-resolution multispectral images.
G7UPN hopes that Amateur Radio operators will take advantage of the high-resolution multispectral images available from TO-31 "and keep other traffic to a minimum." According to Chris, "due to current limitations with on-board memory, images will only be available on the satellite for a few days after they are taken. If other files (especially large files) are uploaded to the satellite, this will ultimately increase the amount of time taken to download images and they may therefore be deleted before they are completed."
During the commissioning process, a problem with the downlink transmitter was found, and G7UPN tells ANS that "unfortunately, the transmitter is still causing some problems and operation is not currently available over most areas." Amateurs in Europe and Asia will find the downlink 'on' most of the time, and it will remain on for between 15 and 30 minutes at a time. In the coming weeks the transmitter will be switched on over more areas and allow much wider access TO-31.
"Testing will continue," says Chris, "and during some of these tests, access may be limited to command stations only. If at any time the BBS is in a 'SHUT' mode as displayed in WiSP (or any of the digital programs), please do not attempt to access the satellite as it may delay any command string that is underway."
Downlink 436.925 MHz 9600 baud FSK
Uplink 145.925 MHz 9600 baud FSK
BBS Callsign TMSAT1-12
Broadcast Callsign TMSAT1-11
The TMSAT-1 micro-satellite was successfully launched from the Russian Baikonur Cosmodrome on July 10, 1998.
[ANS thanks Chris G7UPN / ZL2TPO, for this information]
AMSAT's Ray Soifer, W2RS, tells ANS that ham operators the world over are "most cordially invited" to join in the AMSAT 27th Annual Straight Key Night (SKN) sponsored by AMSAT-North America for Amateur Radio satellite enthusiasts worldwide.
According to W2RS, it's entirely unofficial; there are no rules, no scoring and best of all -- no need to send in a log. The only thing that satellite operators need to do is call CQ-SKN in the CW passband segment of any OSCAR satellite from 0000 to 2359 UTC on January 1, 1999, (or) answer a CQ-SKN call from another station. OSCAR Zero (EME) contacts also count.
Of course, all SKN operating must be done with a straight hand key.
In addition, participating sat-ops are encouraged to nominate someone they worked for recognition as having the 'best fist'. To send such a nomination, please address it via e-mail to:
firstname.lastname@example.org (or) via packet radio to:
W2RS@WA2SNA or W2RS@GB7HSN
Nominations will also be accepted via the W2RS callbook address.
Those nominated will be featured in a future W2RS bulletin to be sent to all the Amateur Radio publications and posted via ANS to packet radio systems and the Internet -- in early February 1999.
[ANS thanks Ray Soifer, W2RS, for this information]
If you missed the recent AMSAT Space Symposium in Vicksburg, Mississippi, you can still check out the daily happenings and read the technical information presented during the Symposium. The Proceedings of the AMSAT-NA 16th Space Symposium held October 16-18, 1998, in Vicksburg, Mississippi, is now available from either the AMSAT-NA office or from the ARRL.
For more information on how to order the 1998 AMSAT-NA Symposium Proceedings, contact AMSAT-NA secretary Martha Saragovitz at:
Telephone: +1 (301) 589-6062
850 Sligo Ave. Suite 600
Silver Spring, MD 20910-4703
The 1998 AMSAT Proceedings is also available from the ARRL, order Item 7024. More information is available by calling (toll free) 888-277-5289 or visit the ARRL web site at the following URL:
[ANS thanks AMSAT-NA secretary Martha Saragovitz, and the ARRL for this information]
ANS news in brief this week includes the following:
Mir . RS-12 . RS-13 . RS-15 . RS-16 . RS-18. AO-10 . AO-27 . FO-20 . FO-29 . KO-23 . KO-25 . UO-11 . AO-16 . DO-17 . WO-18 . LO-19 . UO-22 . IO-26 . TO-31 . GO-32
The PBBS is running a Kantronics KPC-9612 + V.8.1 TNC. The commands are similar to most PBBS and BBS systems.
November, 1998 marks the 10th year of Amateur Radio activity from Mir. ANS congratulates MIREX and everyone associated with the wonderful experience of ham radio activity aboard the Mir space station.
MIREX has announced an on going APRS School Days Test. MIREX is allowing schools to use APRS for position and status reports via R0MIR. Non-school stations are asked to refrain from using APRS type transmissions or beacons via R0MIR.
Dave, KC7RKH/4, tells ANS he is "having a great time with unproto connects through Mir," adding, "it's what I've wanted to do with ham radio all along and now I'd like to start working some of the other satellites as well." Welcome aboard Dave!
Scott, WA6LIE, has a set of instructions on how to work the Mir space station. Copies of the instructions are available from Scott by e-mail at email@example.com, or by packet at wa6lie@wa6lie.#wcca.ca.usa.noam.
[ANS thanks Scott Avery, WA6LIE, and the MIREX team for Mir status information]
Uplink 145.910 to 145.950 MHz CW/SSB
Uplink 21.210 to 21.250 MHz CW/SSB
Downlink 29.410 to 29.450 MHz CW/SSB
Downlink 145.910 to 145.950 MHz CW/SSB
Beacon 29.408 MHz
Robot Uplink 21.129 MHz, Downlink 29.454 MHz
Last reported to be semi-operational, beacon only.
Uplink 21.260 to 21.300 MHz CW/SSB
Uplink 145.960 to 146.000 MHz CW/SSB
Downlink 29.460 to 29.500 MHz CW/SSB
Downlink 145.960 to 146.000 MHz CW/SSB
Beacon 29.504 MHz
Robot Uplink 21.140 MHz, Downlink 29.458 MHz
Last reported in mode K (from Jerry, K5OE).
The RS-12/13 satellite has seen many recent changes in operation during the past weeks. Modes K, T, KT and simultaneous RS-13 operation have all been reported by a number of stations.
No official word from the satellite controllers has been received. ANS recommends monitoring each satellite carefully to determine the transponder in operation and which mode it is operating in.
Bill, KA7YAO, reports the RS-13 beacon was copied 5X7 as was his 10-meter downlink during a recent pass of the spacecraft. Veronica, tells ANS that RS-13 has also been heard at IK3ZAW, with many stateside stations copied on the transponder.
RS-12/13 command is now in the hands of Alex Papkov, in Kaluga City, Russia.
Uplink 145.858 to 145.898 MHz CW/SSB
Downlink 29.354 to 29.394 MHz CW/SSB
Beacon 29.352 MHz (intermittent)
Semi-operational, Mode A (2m uplink, 10m downlink)
John, KD2JF, reports on a recent RS-15 pass with good signals, he could hear his downlink 5X5 for about 1/3 of the pass. Bill, KA7YAO, tells ANS he also made several calls with a nice downlink on RS-15 recently.
Dave, WB6LLO, reports he has prepared a "quick and dirty" set of operating instructions for RS-15 at the following URL:
Downlink 145.812 MHz FM
Russian cosmonauts successfully launched RS-18/Sputnik 41 on November 10, 1998, during a spacewalk from the Mir space station. The spacecraft is just under 8 inches in diameter, weighs almost 9 pounds and carries a 200-mW transmitter. RS-18 has no solar cells and its expected operational lifetime is approximately 30 days.
Recent RS-18 reception reports have been received from KC8CMQ, KC8CUC, KB5SZO, N7UIE, NU3S, KE6ZGP, W2RS, KE4TIE, TA2NC, 9H1IF, KH2PM, KD9KC, SP6QKP, NU0C and EA4EKH.
Recent RS-18 reception reports have been received from Kevin, AC5DK, who copied RS-18 after finishing a clean sweep in the November SS contest! Other reports have been received from SP6QKP, F6AGR, KH2PM, KC7RKH/4, and KD5DAY.
Hank, N1LTV, tells ANS he has put together a 'Sputnik-41 Telemetry Assistant' software program that may be of help to those monitoring RS-18. The software tacks the internal temperature of the spacecraft, recording the report in Fahrenheit and/or Celsius rounded to a tenth of a degree. The free program is available for downloading at:
Sputnik 41 information is available at the following URL:
A computer .wav file of the actual received signal can also be found at:
Gerard, F6FAO, suggests the following address for RS-18 QSL requests:
AMSAT-France RS-18 QSL Manager 14 bis rue des Gourlis 92 500 Rueil-Malmaison France
The list of received QSL's by the French QSL manager is available at the following link (note: the list changes daily as cards are received):
RS-18 temperature reports are being requested by F6FAO. Date, UTC time, frequency of tone, name and grid square location should be included in the report. Stations may e-mail this information to:
[ANS thanks Gerard Auvray, F6FAO, for this information]
Uplink 435.030 to 435.180 MHz CW/LSB
Downlink 145.975 to 145.825 MHz CW/USB
Beacon 145.810 MHz (unmodulated carrier)
AO-10 continues to function well with the exception of the periodic deep QSB, which can be partially eliminated by switching antenna polarization. Strong signals have been heard even at apogee. Also note that AO-10's apogee is approaching its most northern point (ArgP = 270). From there the apogee will begin its slow migration southward.
Peter, VE7AHX, tells ANS of a "spectacular QSO" on AO-10 -- a roundtable with KC2PJX, N6PAA, N2YAC and K6YK -- with the satellite below the horizon at times. Signals were running S-9 or better, with KC2CJX receiving the bird "as loud as his local repeater."
Waldis, VK1WJ, recently worked Bill, VU2MKP, with 5X5 signals each way. Andy, GD0TEP, worked IK5QLO, SP6LB and DJ5MN recently (all on CW). Hardy, DC8TS, reports 9M8TG and YB0ARA/9 have been active on AO-10. SP6QKP has also been active, as has Raul, EA4EKH, who reports working Jussi, OH5LK.
W4SM tells ANS that he has, using ranging software (and hardware) developed by James Miller, G3RUH, recently made ranging measurements on AO-10 for the last week and have fed these measurements into an algorithm which generates modified Keplerian elements from a "seed" set of elements. The Keplerian elements generated appear to be accurate within 16-25 km.
Note: This element set may have to be entered by hand or cut and pasted line by line into a tracking program, rather than automatically extracted. They are not in the complete AMSAT format, orbit# (Epoch rev), Element set#, and Checksum are not included.
Satellite: AO-10 Catalog number: 14129 Epoch time: 98325.18347 Inclination: 26.7620 deg RA of node: 57.5200 deg Eccentricity: 0.59973 Arg of perigee: 267.4440 deg Mean anomaly: 217.2710 deg Mean motion: 2.05838411 rev/day Decay rate: 0.00 rev/day^2
Stacey Mills, W4SM, has more information about the satellite at the following URL:
[ANS thanks Stacey Mills, W4SM, for his AO-10 status information and web site]
Uplink 145.850 MHz FM
Downlink: 436.792 MHz FM
The TEPR settings of AO-27 were recently reset by Chuck, KM4NZ. The new settings now reflect the Earth's position during the northern fall/winter season, and should provide more satellite 'on' time for AO-27 during each pass.
Scott, VE6ITV, tells ANS that "AO-27 is super with the new TEPR settings." Chris, KH2PM, recently made his first QSO via AO-27. Mike, KF4FDJ, regularly works the satellite with his Yaesu handheld. Al, XE2YVW is planning to activate several new grid squares during an upcoming trip, including DK79, DL81 and DK89.
[ANS thanks Michael Wyrick, N4USI, for AO-27 information]
Uplink 145.900 to 146.000 MHz CW/LSB
Downlink 435.800 to 435.900 MHz CW/USB
FO-20 in mode JA continuously.
[ANS thanks Kazu Sakamoto, JJ1WTK for the FO-20 status reports]
Kazu, JJ1WTK, tells ANS that the FO-29 Command Team has released the following announcement concerning FO-29 status:
The present JA mode of operation will continue to investigate the frequency of bit errors in the on-board-computer. Reports from Amateurs on the value of channel 2A are appreciated. The position of 2A is the fifth item after 'HI HI' in CW telemetry. The normal value is '00'. Reports should be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org.
FO-29 is still in 'full sun illumination'; this should end in December.
The on-board-computer (OBC) did accept commands from ground control before full illumination began. The FO-29 Command Team says digital (JD) mode operation may be available in December. Digi-talker operation is also being planned. The next announcement is expected November 20th.
[ANS thanks Kazu Sakamoto, JJ1WTK, for this report.]
Uplink 145.850, 145.900 MHz FM
Downlink 435.175 MHz FM, 9600 Baud FSK
Richard, G3RWL, reports recent trouble uploading to KO-23. ANS also received similar reports from WA4SCA, G8UFN and N1QQV. Alan, WA4SCA, also reported that "KO-23 seems to be back to normal, but the downlink is up about 6 kHz from where it has been."
[ANS thanks Jim Weisenberger, AA7KC, and G3RWL, WA4SCA, G8UFN and N1QQV for KO-23 reports]
Uplink 145.980 MHz FM
Downlink 436.500 MHz FM, 9600 Baud FSK
Jim, AA7KC tells ANS the satellite returned to normal operation on November 24th. Alan, WA4SCA, also reports KO-25 is back in normal operation.
[ANS thanks Jim Weisenberger, AA7KC, for KO-25 status information]
Uplink 145.900 or 145.975 MHz FM
Downlink 435.120 MHz FM 9600 Baud FSK
More information on the satellite is available at the following URL:
[ANS thanks Chris Jackson, G7UPN/ZL2TPO, Operations Manager of UO-22 for this report]
Downlink 145.825 MHz FM, 1200 baud PSK
Beacon 2401.500 MHz
Clive, G3CWV, reports an uneventful month for OSCAR-11. Telemetry has been nominal.
The mode-S beacon is on, transmitting an unmodulated carrier, however telemetry indicates that it has partially failed, delivering half power. This beacon is a useful test source for those testing mode-S converters prior to the launch of P3D. The 435.025 MHz beacon is normally off.
Two new WOD software packages have recently added to the Oscar 11 web site. The first package enables various WOD channels to be compared with the solar eclipse status of the satellite. The second package compares measured and calculated magnetic fields encountered by Oscar 11. Both packages are of an advanced nature, users will need experience using the other WOD packages on the web site and a spreadsheet program.
The URL is http://www.users.zetnet.co.uk/clivew/
Beacon reception reports should be sent to: email@example.com
[ANS thanks Clive Wallis, G3CWV, for this information.]
Uplink 145.900, 145.920, 145.940, 145.860 MHz FM, 1200 bps Manchester
Downlink 437.0513 MHz SSB, 1200 bps RC-BPSK 1200 Baud PSK
Beacon 2401.1428 MHz.)
The AO-16 command team has authorized an APRS experiment on AO-16 to explore the use of the 1200-baud PACSAT for APRS position/status reporting. The test periods will run each Tuesday from 0000 to 2359 UTC.
The telemetry is nominal.
Time is Sat Nov 28 12:17:08 1998 uptime is 1532/06:41:39 +X (RX) Temp -7.868 D RX Temp 0.603 D Bat 1 Temp 5.444 D Bat 2 Temp 10.285 D Baseplt Temp 6.049 D RC PSK BP Temp 0.603 D RC PSK HPA Tmp 0.603 D +Y Array Temp 1.814 D PSK TX HPA Tmp -0.607 D +Z Array Temp -7.263 D RC PSK TX Out 0.472 W Total Array C= 0.459 Bat Ch Cur=-0.006 Ifb= 0.029 I+10V= 0.322 TX:010B BCR:80 PWRC:59E BT: A WC:25 EDAC:A5
General information and telemetry WOD files can be found at http://www.ctv.es/USERS/ea1bcu
A graphic summary of the October WOD survey transmitted by AO-16, including spin-rate, rotation, voltage, current and other parameters can be found at http://www.ctv.es/USERS/ea1bcu/wod1998.zip
[ANS thanks Miguel A. Menendez, EA1BCU, for this report.]
Uplink 145.840, 145.860, 145.880, 145.900 MHz 1200 bps Manchester FSK
Downlink 437.125 MHz SSB, 1200 bps RC-BPSK
Miguel, EA1BCU, reports downlink signals show good modulation. The satellite is transmitting an ASCII message containing the following text:
No BBS service. On Board Computer reload in progress.
Digipeater active. Thank you - Norberto - LU8DYF.
No telemetry report was received by ANS.
General information and telemetry samples can find at http://www.ctv.es/USERS/ea1bcu/lo19.htm
[ANS thanks Miguel A. Menendez, EA1BCU, for this report.]
Uplink 145.875, 145.900, 145.925, 145.950 MHz FM
Downlink 435.822 MHz SSB, 1200 Baud PSK
Telemetry is reported as being received on 435.822 MHz at 1200 baud PSK. No additional information is available at this time.
Downlink 436.923 MHz
TMSAT-1 is now open for general access by Amateur Radio operators worldwide. TMSAT commissioning has been completed and shows that most of the spacecraft systems are operating correctly. Normal access will allow operators to use the store and forward communications on the spacecraft and also download the high-resolution multispectral images.
It is hoped Amateur Radio operators will take advantage of the high-resolution multispectral images available from TO-31 and keep other traffic to a minimum. Due to current limitations with on-board memory, images will only be available on the satellite for a few days after they are taken.
Testing will continue and access may be limited to command stations only. If at any time the BBS is in a 'SHUT' mode as displayed in WiSP (or any of the digital programs), do not attempt to access the satellite as it may delay any command string that is underway.
[ANS thanks Chris Jackson, G7UPN/ZL2TPO, for this report]
Downlink 435.325 435.225 MHz
HDLC telemetry framed so a TNC in KISS mode will decode it
The TechSat-1B micro-satellite was successfully launched from the Russian Baikonur Cosmodrome on July 10, 1998. The satellite is expected to be available for general amateur use in the future.
The satellite does not have a continuous beacon, but does transmit a 9600-baud burst every 30 seconds (for about 3 seconds in length), currently on 435.225 MHz.
The TechSat team has also constructed a home page about the TechSat bird, and promise they will add more information in the next few weeks. To view the site, point your web browser to:
[ANS thanks Shlomo Menuhin, 4X1AS for this information]
Attempts to command the mode A transponder 'on' have been unsuccessful to date. At this time the RS-16 transponder is non-operational. The 435 MHz beacon (only) is operational.
No additional information is available at this time.
Downlink 145.825 MHz FM, 1200 Baud AFSK
Beacon 2401.220 MHz
The 145.825 MHz and 2401.220 MHz downlinks are off the air.
No additional information is available at this time.
Downlink 437.104 MHz SSB, 1200 Baud PSK AX.25
WO-18 is reported to be in MBL mode after a software crash.
No additional information is available at this time.
[Please send any amateur satellite news or reports to the ANS Editors at firstname.lastname@example.org, or to ANS Editor Dan James, NN0DJ, at email@example.com.]
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This week's AMSAT News Service bulletins were edited by AMSAT News Service Editor Dan James, NN0DJ, firstname.lastname@example.org.