Amateur Satellite FAQ

Revision 12/30/94



Having recently started to get into Satellites, I asked MANY people what it took to get started and what to do. I found few people who could offer all the information necessary to start. I have attempted to compile this information for future newbies. If I have missed something, please ask and I will attempt to add it to the collection. Any comments can be sent directly to me, Copies of this article should be available in the following locations:
	Clear Skies BBS (608)249-7130

Also, if you really want to get serious about satellites, I would STRONGLY recommend joining AMSAT to help promote the satellite hobby. AMSAT is a volunteer organization that works for the interests of amateur satellites. Dues are only US$30 per year and you will receive a subscription to "The AMSAT Journal". For US$80, you will receive first year dues and a copy of Instant Track computer tracking software which is a top-notch program. Instant Track was donated to AMSAT by its author and its sales account for a considerable portion of AMSAT's income. AMSAT-NA, 850 Sligo Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910-4703. (301) 589-6062. Credit cards welcome.

NOTE: I am in no way connected with AMSAT-NA, other than I have found their publications quite useful.


The following text was compiled from the following sources and from comments from many operators:


The combination of uplink freq, downlink freq, and transmission mode are all lumped together into standardized satellite MODES. Here is a list of common satellite modes used by satellites covered by this article:

This mode requires a 2 meter SSB/CW transmitter and a 10 meter SSB/CW receiver and supports CW and voice.
This mode requires a 70 cm SSB/CW transmitter and a 2 meter SSB/CW receiver and supports CW and voice. Some satellites also support RTTY and SSTV in this mode.
This mode requires a 15 meter SSB/CW transmitter and a 10 meter SSB/CW receiver and supports CW and voice. This mode is unique in that it can be done with a simple HF rig.
This mode stands for J Analog and requires a 2 meter SSB/CW transmitter and a 70 cm SSB/CW receiver and supports CW, voice.
This mode stands for J Digital and requires a 2 meter FM transmitter and a 70 cm SSB/CW receiver and supports packet.
This mode requires a 70 cm SSB/CW transmitter and a 2.4 GHz SSB/CW receiver and supports CW and voice. Many people use a 2.4 GHz to 2 meter converter with a 2 meter SSB/CW receiver instead of buying a 2.4 GHz SSB/CW receiver.
This mode requires a 15 meter SSB/CW transmitter and a 2 meter SSB/CW receiver and supports CW and voice.

Some satellites have dual modes that operate simultaneously. For example, AO-13 can operate in mode BS which means that it can do both mode B and mode S simultaneously. Other common dual modes are KT and KA.

Also, satellites have 3 basic types of retransmissions: beacon, transponder, and repeater.

Most satellites have a fixed Morse beacon at the lower end of the satellites band-pass transponder. This is useful to detect when the satellite has crossed the horizon and is in range for operation. It can also be used to determine doppler shifts.
A transponder is a band-pass repeater. It accepts a range of frequencies on the input and retransmits the entire range on the output. All offsets within that range are preserved. NOTE: since the satellite is transmitting many signals at the same time, it is dividing its output power amongst all of these signals. If someone transmits a very powerful signal into the satellite, it will spend most of its power retransmitting that signal and all of the other signals will drop in power. This is NOT a way to earn friends and people who overpower the satellites input are called "alligators" and are not very popular.
This closely resembles a land-based repeater. It listens for signals on one frequency and retransmits it on another frequency. All satellite repeaters (and transponders) are full duplex, meaning you can (and should) listen to you signal on the downlink (with headphones) while you are transmitting.


Some satellites are easier to work than others. The satellites that follow can be operated fairly easily and are referred to by some as the Easy Sats. What follows is a brief description of each satellite. A summary list of operating frequencies is included later.


Mir (pronounced "mere" - "Peace" in Russian) is the Russian Space Station. It's been in orbit since 1986. All recent Russian Cosmonauts have been hams and have callsigns with "MIR" in them, such as U2MIR. Mir has 2-meter equipment on board and they operate packet and voice on 145.55 MHz. (This is the same freq as the downlink from the Space Shuttles.) The cosmonauts also have a digital voice recorder which can repeatedly transmit voice announcements.

The best way to get a QSL card from Mir is to connect to their TNC's mailbox, R0MIR-1, (That's R Zero MIR) leave a message AND GET A MESSAGE NUMBER. You must have the message number to qualify for a QSL. The TNC is often busy because amateurs forget to disconnect before Mir goes under their horizon. In a case like this, try connecting to yourself or a friend VIA R0MIR. And if you hear a heavily accented voice calling CQ, by all means say hello!

70 cm and ATV gear is being prepared for future flights!

QSL Address:

	Sergei Samburov (RV3DR)
	Prospect Kosmonavtov. d.36, kw.96
	Kaliningrad City, MOSCOW 141070, RUSSIA.

Sergei can also be reached via packet radio as RV3DR @ RK3KP.#MSK.RUS.EU

A special note on calculating Mir's orbit: Mir is big and it's in a low orbit. This means that there's a lot of atmospheric drag and it has to fire its rockets every month or two to boost itself back up or it would have re-entered and burned up long ago. Unfortunately, whenever this happens, it throws off all pass predictions. When this happens, Mir will arrive LATER than predicted, so if you tune to 145.55 and nothing happens at the predicted time, keep waiting, it may be along in 10-30 minutes.

SEEING MIR: Mir is also the only EZSAT that can be seen. Mir is very big, about the size of a semi-trailer, and when it comes over just after sunset or just before sunrise, you can often see it go by. This is because Mir will still be in sunlight while you're in the earth's shadow. In these cases, Mir looks like a very bright star gliding across the sky. It's a beautiful sight and well worth looking for. It's best to use a tracking program set to VISUAL to find visible passes. The best such programs will even draw you a star map and show you Mir's path across it. Don't forget to tune to 145.55 when you see it. Also, don't forget to get on the local repeater and tell people when you spot it so that others can share in the fun.

RS-10/11, RS-12/13, OSCAR-21(RS-14)

These three satellites are all in 600 mile high polar orbits, which carry them over the US six to eight times a day for 10-18 minutes at a time. They all have orbital periods of about 95 minutes and we typically get two sets of three or four passes spaced 95 minutes apart. The two sets of passes are spaced 12 hours apart and their passes come a little earlier each day because their orbits don't take quite exactly 95 minutes.

These satellites all have a coverage circle about 4000 miles in diameter, so when they're about the horizon, you can use them to work hams anywhere in the continental US, Canada, Alaska, Mexico, Central America, South America down to the Equator, the Caribbean, Greenland, Iceland and parts of Scandinavia. Eastern hams can work Europe and the West can work Hawaii.

All of these satellites are in boxes that are bolted to larger Russian satellites and draw their power from the large satellite's solar cells. They are VERY easy to hear and fairly simple to work.


My favorite satellite. This is a German/Russian radio that uses a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) chip and it is Flexible with a capital "F"! It was launched in January, 1990 configured as a linear translator which received a band of 70 cm CW and SSB signals and relayed them on 2 meters. The bird was, to put it mildly, under-utilized. Then in 1992 the DSP chip was reprogrammed in orbit into a cross band FM repeater! If you've been wondering if DSP is as powerful as you've heard, now you know! In the past year, it's telemetry has been re-programmed from an obscure format to standard 1200 baud packet. WEFAX pictures (which are uploaded by the ground controllers) were added in December 1993. (This is the same format used by many weather sats and short wave weather stations.)

OSCAR-21 has an input frequency of 435.016 MHz, but 435.015 works just fine. It's output frequency is 145.987 MHz, but 145.985 or 145.990 will receive it quite well. It has a strong transmitter and a ground plane antenna and most HTs have no trouble picking its signals up when it passes over. Mobiles and base stations with omni antennas will receive it full quieting. You can get into this bird with 20 watts and a six element beam antenna. I mount my beam on a photo tripod next to my car and run coax to my dual band mobile. You have to point the beam accurately, so I take a list of altitude and azimuth bearing generated by simple tracking software out with me and re-point the beam once a minute. In one summer, I worked the east and west coasts, several Canadians, Texas and Guantanamo Bay, Cuba before fall's cold weather drove me indoors.

Some OSCAR-21 tips: you can hardly get a word in edgewise during "prime time" opening passes. Try the late night passes instead, they're much less crowded. OSCAR-21's transmit and receive polarity rotate constantly during a pass. Mount your beam so you can easily rotate it for the best signal. Remember, all these ham sats are full duplex, so you can and should monitor your signal on the downlink. (Use headphones.) Turn the beam for minimum noise. You'll probably have to modify your dual band rig to get it to transmit on 435.015. BE CAREFUL because FM is generally NOT appreciated below 440 Mhz. Also, the mod may allow you to transmit out of band, which is a real no-no.

OSCAR-21 is also known as RS-14, AO-21 and Rudak-2. It's bolted to a satellite called INFORMATOR-1, which is often abbreviated INFORMTR-1. It's NORAD ID number is 21087. Be careful, the rocket booster that launched the satellite is still up there and it's named INFORMTR-1 R/B in some element sets. Your tracking program may find it instead of the satellite if you're not careful.


This is probably the easiest satellite to work of them all. It has an incredibly sensitive receiver that can pick up the faintest two meter signal and relay it on ten meters. There are documented examples of people having QSOs on RS-10/11 by clicking Morse on HTs with rubber duck antennas! I guarantee you that your HT can put a useable signal into RS-10/11, I've done it myself. WARNING: if you try this, disable the microphone so you don't transmit any FM sidebands and turn your CTCSS (PL) OFF!

RS-10/11 (Radio Sputnik) is for CW and SSB signals, so an all mode 2 meter rig is ideal for transmitting to this bird. The input bandpass is from 145.860 - 145.900 and the output freqs are from 29.360 - 29.400 MHz. There is also a morse beacon at 29.357 MHz.

RS-10 is also equipped with a feature called ROBOT. The ROBOT is an automatic on-board QSO computer. To work it, send the following at about 15-20 wpm on 145.82 MHz (an automated keyer works best):

	RS-10 DE (your call) AR

If the ROBOT hears you, it will respond on the 29.403 MHz downlink with:

	(your call) DE RS-10 QSL NR (number)
	OP ROBOT TU USW QSO (number) 73 SK

If you want a QSL card, try sending the QSL number the ROBOT sent back to you on your QSL (along with an SASE and return postage) to:

	Andrey Mironov
	UL Vvoloshinoj. D11. KV72.
	141000 Station Perlovskaya
	Moscow, Russia


A cousin to RS-10/11, RS-12/13 is also a 40 KHz wide linear transponder. However, this bird is unique because its input frequencies are in the fifteen meter band! This is also the only ham sat in the sky that requires more than a code free technician license to work it, because its input band is from 21.210 - 21.250 MHz. This straddles the Advanced and Extra portions of the 15 meter band. Its output freqs are from 29.410 - 29.450 MHz. Because of skip, this satellite can often be heard and worked when it's below the horizon! At least one person has earned DXCC on this satellite! RS-12/13 is bolted to yet another Russian satellite and its NORAD ID is 21089. RS-12/13 also has a ROBOT mode like its brother RS-10/11.


DOVE is short for Digital Orbiting Voice Encoder and is a transmit-only hamsat (it has no user accessible receiver). Built in Argentina, DOVE was launched in 1990 as a good will satellite to introduce children and newcomers to amateur satellites. It was originally intended to transmit digitized voice messages that could be picked up by students with simple receivers. Unfortunately, the digital voice hardware and software has been a constant source of problems since launch. Attempts to get DOVE to works properly are proceeding as this is written, so the best bet is to tune your 2-meter rig or scanner to 145.825 MHz and see what the bird is up to currently. Be ready for Morse, standard 1200 baud packet or (with luck) digitized voice messages. The signals are strong enough so that an HT with a rubber duck will hear it when it's overhead, although ground plane antennas will give better coverage when the bird is near the horizon.


Known as Phase 3-B before it's launch by the European Space Agency in June, 1983, this satellite was designed for launch into a high elliptical orbit. This orbit, called "Molniya" orbit, places the satellite over one spot on the Earth for up to several hours at a time. This orbital configuration also allows for consistent, long haul DX communication because the satellite is visible to roughly half the Earth! This orbit virtually eliminates the frantic "hurry up" style of operation. But such a luxury is not without cost. At the farthest point in the Molniya orbit, this satellite is over 25,000 miles away from the Earth, meaning high gain antennas and higher power levels are required to get a workable signal up and through the bird. Also, even though radio waves travel at the speed of light, the over 50,000 mile round trip creates a signal path delay of about 1/4 second on the downlinked signal. It takes some time for satellite operators to get used to simultaneously speaking and listening to their own voices returning in their headphones a quarter second later.

The first Phase 3-A launch ended in disaster when the Ariane booster malfunctioned, dropping the bird in the Atlantic. Phase 3-B, later to become OSCAR 10, met with somewhat better fortune, surviving the launch and first burn of its "kick motor" just fine. However, we later learned that the booster had apparently bumped OSCAR 10 shortly after separation which damaged one or more of its antennas and also caused other internal injuries because the second and subsequent kick motor firings never happened. This left OSCAR 10 in a lower inclination elliptical orbit. This meant that the bird didn't have the intended operational coverage nor enough solar panel illumination to sustain full operations. So today, OSCAR 10 is "sort of" operational. It is stuck in mode "B" with only its omnidirectional antennas working and it is slowly tumbling. Users are requested to listen for AO-10's 145.810 MHz beacon for a steady, unmodulated carrier before operating the bird. If the beacon is raspy or if your downlink signal appears to be shifting in frequency, users are asked NOT to use the transponder until it has a chance to slowly recharge its batteries.


Launched in June, 1988, OSCAR-13 is now carrying the bulk of the long haul DX available via amateur satellite. It is the current--and much improved--brother to OSCAR 10. However, unlike OSCAR 10, it did managed to achieve its "Molniya" orbit. OSCAR 13 also has the ability to automatically select transponders for each mode at different points in its orbit. This helps optimize the mode in use with its corresponding downlink antenna gain. OSCAR 13 did have some problems, however. It had a RUDAK experiment on board that failed shortly after launch. Also, in June 1993, the 70 cm downlink transmitter ceased to function, putting an end to Mode J and L operation. However, modes B and S are still being supported and mode S is becoming increasingly popular. Also, AO-13's batteries are beginning to show signs of age and its orbit it deteriorating. The progressive effects of previously unknown gravitational interactions between AO-13, the Sun, the Moon and the Earth will all conspire to cause the satellite's re-entry into the atmosphere sometime in 1996.


For AO-13, the consensus is get to get KLMs, Telex/Hy-Gains, or roll-your own, Nobody liked the Cushcraft satellite antennas - they appear to have problems in wet weather. Bigger is also better, if you have the space. Several people mentioned the KLM 22C and 40CX pair as excellent performers (again - you need the room for those long booms!) KE4ZV stated his pair of KLMs (the big ones!) lets him work AO-13 with 3 to 30 watts (hardline feed and rigorous attention to routing the feedlines and cables properly to maintain the antenna patterns helps, too.). Others mentioned the KLM 14C/18C pair as good performers - but you need more power on the uplink.

Telex/Hy-Gain antennas were recommended by several people as a less expensive alternative to KLMs that work almost as well. There's also M2 (started by an engineer from KLM). While no one who responded uses them, the information I received from their factory in California suggests they are comparable to slightly better than the KLMs in performance, about the same in cost, however they are mechanically stronger. Also noted was that all of the M2 antennas use CNC machined parts, O-rings, silicon gel sealed internal connections, and stainless steel hardware to ensure that they stand up to harsh weather. Dave, WB6LFC, said homebrewing antennas is also feasible - it takes work, but attention to detail results in top-notch performance for very little money. Finally, Ross, VE6PDQ, reported good results using a pair of Cushcraft 215WBs on receive.

Problems encountered with AO-13 antennas include routing cables and feedlines off the back of the antennas (to preserve antenna patterns), use of fiberglass cross booms, mounting preamps as close to the feedpoint as possible, and long antenna booms drooping. (Gary, KE4ZV, recommends using a rope to brace the boom or stiffening booms and fiberglass masts internally with foam-in-a-can insulation.)

On antenna rotators, it appears the Alliance UD-100 is no longer made, though it should still show up at hamfests. People with long-boom antennas report the Alliance rotator is too weak to move a big array anyway, and recommended Yaesu's elevation-only rotator or their Model 5400 azimuth-elevation unit.

Antennas for the low-altitude satellites appear to be much less critical. J-poles were most frequently mentioned (the design from the AMSAT Journal?), but dipoles, ground-planes, and yagis are also in use. Several people work RS-10 quite well with antennas in the attic. Best results are with steerable antennas, but the high operator workload during a pass (unless the satellite is just grazing your access circle) almost demands computer control of the rotators.


You need a preamp for AO-13. (I can hear the downlink after a fashion on a Ringo fed with cheap coax and a 10 dB preamp in the shack, but it's not communications quality reception!) Only two people mentioned a specific brand name (Advanced Receiver Research and the unit included with the Ten-Tec 2510), so I assume almost any GAsFET preamp in the 20dB gain class is adequate. THE PREAMP MUST (almost always) BE MOUNTED AT THE ANTENNA (check the discussion in Chapter 9 of the Satellite Experimenter's Handbook and you'll see why!). KE4ZV recommends mounting the preamp AT the antenna feedpoint, if your elevation rotator can handle the unbalanced load.

While no one mentioned it (maybe it's obvious), if the antenna is used to transmit (say Mode J) as well as receive (on Mode B, for example), the preamp MUST either include RF-sensed switching, or be switched out of the line before you transmit. TRANSMITTING INTO AN UNPROTECTED PREAMP WILL DESTROY IT INSTANTLY!

Preamps also seem to help on RS-10 (especially with older HF rigs) and on the Pacsats. It seems to be a case of "try it, and get a preamp if it looks like it would help").


Three radios were mentioned by name - Yaesu FT736 (and it's predecessor, the 726 with satellite module), Kenwood TR751 (a mobile-capable 2 meter multimode), and Ten-Tec's 2510. The Ten-Tec unit is out of production. The few units left are selling for about $300-350. I'm sure other multi-mode radios, and setups with converters and transverters work well, too -- it's just that no one mentioned any by name.

Power output required is a function of the satellite, your antennas, and how badly you want to communicate. [QRP on the satellites is just like QRP on HF - you need good antennas and feedline, you have to pick optimal passes, and skilled operators at both ends are needed. Given the apparent "calmer" operating style on AO-13, QRP is probably easier there than on 20 meters!]

Anyway -about power for AO-13. 3-30 watts will work if you have top-notch antennas (KE4ZV). KC7IT uses 50-100 watts (Ten Tec 2510, Mirage D1010 amplifier, KLM 14C/18C fed with 50 feet of 9913). Both KE4ZV and KC7IT use Mirage D1010 amplifiers on 70 cm when they need a little extra power. For an "optimum station", W5ACM (ex-WA5ZIB) recommends 60 watts on 70 cm and 80 watts on 2 meters for AO-13, assuming good antennas (Telex/Hy-Gain or better) and feedlines, and 20 watts to a 5' dish for Mode L. Andy emphasized that you can get by and have lots of fun with much less!

For Mode A, W5ACM (ex-WA5ZIB) said 6 watts to the AO-13 2 meter antenna will work well. People using omnis report success with the Pacsats running 50-70 watts to a J-Pole (N5VGC). Several people said they (or someone they know) have no trouble using RS-10 at lower power (10-25 watts) with simple, omnidirectional antennas. Again, it's a case of "try it and see if it works."

There was unanimous consensus that the receiving equipment (antenna, preamp, feedline, and receiver) is more important than the transmit equipment. Running more power "to hear yourself" is frowned upon, to say the least! It's also important to be able to vary uplink power to adjust to specific conditions. Both the Ten Tec 2510 and the Yaesu 736 have continuously variable power output (I guess the rest of us just have to fiddle with the drive controls on our rigs!).

Accessories and Other Stuff

You need a PSK modem to use the Pacsats. PacCom makes fully assembled units, either already integrated with their own TNC, or as a board you install in your TNC-2 clone. They make similar 9600 bps units for accessing UO-22. The downlink receiver (on 70 cm) should be capable of being tuned by the PSK modem's AFC lines. Newer radios can use the up/down lines from the microphone jack or an accessory connection on the rear panel. Older radios must be modified, or be tuned manually. N5VGC told me he sees about 20KHz of doppler on an AO-16 pass, and that without automatic tuning, operator workload is too high to do much else besides tune the receiver!

Just about any radio suitable for packet on 2 meters will work for AO-16, WO18, and LU-19. To run 9600 bps on UO-22, modifications to bypass the microphone and speaker's audio processing circuits are required. I've seen some reports on and in the various Hamsat columns that differences between UO14 and UO-22's transmitters make UO-22 more difficult to copy. (I'll worry about that problem later - I'll start with AO-16 and LU-19 first!)

No one mentioned computers - again, it must be obvious (also, we're "talking" using computers!). They're handy, and you need one IN THE SHACK when working the Pacsats or for automated, real-time control of antenna rotators (useful for low altitude satellites).

Other operator aids mentioned, or I thought of on my own: If your radio can't slave uplink and downlink tuning (Ten Tec 2510 and Yaesu 736 can), you need something to help convert between uplink and downlink frequencies (and account for doppler shift and calibration errors on the radios' frequency readouts). A cardboard slide scale or dial will work. I'm thinking of programming my HP48 to do the conversion for me. You need something like this to know where to tune on the uplink to hear a given downlink frequency.

Software to track satellites and predict passes. There are many programs that work. Price ranges from free to $70 for state-of-the-art QuickTrack or InstantTrack (available from AMSAT). Special software is also needed to use the Pacsats, and to interpret telemetry data. This software is also available from the usual ham sources, and from AMSAT (BTW, software sales support the amateur satellite program!)

Polarity switchers optimize antenna performance by allowing switching antenna feeds from RHCP to LHCP as the need arises. They are a very useful add-on, but don't appear essential.

Equipment to measure power output, SWR, transmit frequency - all useful (see - satellites are not that different from HF!).


Amateur Radio Satellite Frequencies (as of January 1994)

Designation Frequencies    Transponder/    Mode
  Downlinks 145.810        B               B
            145.825-.975   T               B
            145.987        B               B (Usually off)
  Uplinks   435.027-.179   T               B

  Downlinks  29.357        B               A
             29.360-.400   T               A
             29.403        B (Robot)       A
            145.857        B               T/KT
            145.903        B (Robot)       T/KT
  Uplinks   145.860-.900   T               T/KT
	    145.820        B (Robot)       T/KT

  Downlinks  29.408        B               K
             29.410-.450   T               K
             29.454        B (Robot)       K
            145.913        B               T/KT
            145.959        B (Robot)       T/KT
  Uplinks    21.210-.250   T               K

  Downlinks 145.812        B               B
            145.825-.975   T               B
            145.985        B               B (Usually off)
            435.651        B               L/JL
            435.677                        RUDAK
            435.715-6.005  T               L/JL
           2400.664        B               S
           2400.711-.749   T               S
  Uplinks   435.423-.573   T               B/S
            435.601-.637   T               B/S

  Downlinks 437.02625      T/B             J Dig. (1200b SSB) (secondary)
            437.05130      T/B             J Dig. (1200b Rai. Cos SSB) (pri)
           2401.14280      B               1200 bps SSB (Usually off)
  Uplinks   145.900        T               1200 bps AFSK FM Digital
            145.920        T               1200 bps AFSK FM Digital
            145.940        T               1200 bps AFSK FM Digital
            145.960        T               1200 bps AFSK FM Digital

  Downlinks 145.82438      B               1200 bps AFSK FM or Dig Voice
            145.82516      B               1200 bps AFSK FM or Dig Voice
           2401.22050      B               1200 bps BPSK (SSB) (usually off)
  Uplinks       None

  Downlink  437.10200      B               1200 bps BPSK, J Dig (Telem, Image)
  Uplink        None                                         

  Downlinks 437.125        T/B             J Digital (secondary)
            437.127        B               CW
            437.154        T/B             J Digital (primary)
  Uplinks   145.840        T               1200 bps AFSK FM Digital
            145.860        T               1200 bps AFSK FM Digital
            145.880        T               1200 bps AFSK FM Digital
            145.900        T               1200 bps AFSK FM Digital

  Downlinks 435.795        B               J Analog
            435.800-.900   T               J Analog (See below)
            435.910        T/B             1200 bps BPSK (SSB), J Digital 
  Uplinks   145.850        T               1200 bps AFSK FM Digital
            145.870        T               1200 bps AFSK FM Digital
            145.890        T               1200 bps AFSK FM Digital
            145.910        T               1200 bps AFSK FM Digital
  OR        145.900-6.00   T               CW/SSB (Alternates with above
                                           every other week.  Changes on

  Downlinks 145.852-.932   T               CW/SSB
            145.866-.946   T               CW/SSB
            145.985        Repeater        FM (Alternates with voice 
                                               bulletins and telemetry)
  Uplinks   435.022-.102   T               CW/SSB
            435.601-.637   T               CW/SSB
            435.015        Repeater        FM (See above)

  Downlink  435.120        T               9600 bps FM Digital
  Uplinks   145.900        T               9600 bps FM Digital
            145.975        T               9600 bps FM Digital

  Downlink  435.175        T               9600 bps FM Digital
  Uplinks   145.850        T               9600 bps FM Digital
            145.900        T               9600 bps FM Digital

  Downlink  145.550        T/Robot         (Packet mailbox. Alternates 
                                            with simplex FM voice QSOs 
  Downlink  435.175/436.500 MHz            9600 bps FSK FM Digital
  Uplink    145.870/145.980 MHz            9600 bps FSK FM Digital
  Downlink  435.867 MHz                    1200 bps PSK Digital
  Uplinks   145.875 MHz                    1200 bps FM Digital
            145.900 MHz                    1200 bps FM Digital 
            145.925 MHz                    1200 bps FM Digital
            145.950 MHz                    1200 bps FM Digital
  Downlink  436.798 MHz                    Analog FM voice/9600 bps FSK FM
  Uplink    145.850 MHz                    Analog FM voice/9600 bps FSK FM

  Uplink    145.975 MHz                    JD 9600 bps FSK (Primary)       
            145.925 MHZ                    JD 9600 bps FSK (Secondary)
  Downlink  435.075 MHz                    JD 9600 bps FSK (Primary)
            435.050 MHz                    JD 9600 bps FSK (Secondary) 

Satellite Aliases

(thanks to N9LTD)

NORAD Common Name [Aliases]                   (Parent satellite)
----- ----------- --------------------------- ------------------
14129 AO-10       [OSCAR 10, Phase 3B]
14781 UO-11       [OSCAR 11, UOSAT-B, UOSAT 2]
16609 Mir
18129 RS-10/11    [RS-10]                      (COSMOS 1861)
19216 AO-13       [OSCAR 13, Phase 3C]
20437 UO-14       [OSCAR 14, UOSAT-OSCAR 14]
20438 UO-15       [OSCAR 15, UOSAT-OSCAR 15]
20439 AO-16       [OSCAR 16, Pacsat, Microsat-A]
20440 DO-17       [OSCAR 17, DOVE, Microsat-B] 
20441 WO-18       [OSCAR 18, WEBERSAT, Microsat-C]
20442 LO-19       [OSCAR 19, LUSAT, Microsat-D]
20480 FO-20       [Fuji-OSCAR 20]              (JAS 1-B)
21087 AO-21       [OSCAR 21, RS-14, RUDAK-II]  (INFORMTR-1 or INFORMATOR-1)
21089 RS-12/13    [RS-12]                      (COSMOS 2123)
21575 UO-22       [OSCAR 22, UoSat 5, UOSAT-F]
22077 KO-23       [OSCAR 23, KITSAT A, Uribyol 1]
22654 ARSENE
22825 AO-27       [OSCAR 27, AMRAD]            (EYESAT-1)
22826 AO-26       [ITAMSAT, IO-26, OSCAR 26]
22829 PO-28       [POSAT, POSAT 1, OSCAR 28]
22830 KO-25       [KITSAT B, OSCAR 25, Uribyol 2]

Stephen Holmstead,