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Re: Creating Artworks based on Delfi-C3... or ?

----- Original Message -----
From: "Henk, PA3GUO" <hamoen@iae.nl>
To: <amsat-bb@amsat.org>
Cc: <pa3guo@amsat.org>
Sent: Monday, May 05, 2008 6:42 AM
Subject: [amsat-bb] Creating Artworks based on Delfi-C3... or ?

> Dear all,
> Previous days it was observed already, then in periods of maximum signal
> strengths on LHCP, there is a minimum on RCHP (and visa versa).
> Triggered by that I wanted to try something else: simulations reception
> of the two antennas of my 'X' antenna (2x6 elements DK7ZB), and plot the
> signal strengths over time.
> Most likely this can be considered as a totally useless experiment, but
> I wanted to do this for once (could have taken another satellite as well).
> Both antennas are only 6 cm distance from eachother, which is compensated
> by a bit of extra coax cable. The two cables enter the shack.
> One cable has been connected to an FT817. Other cable was connected to
> an TS2000. Using this set-up I did a simulatious reception of Delfi C3,
> and plotted the received signals above eachother:
> Result: Maximum on one antenna is minimum on the other, and visa versa.
> Have a look yourself at the graph:
> Conclusion of PA3GUO: fun to do, but I have no clue what this tells us :-)
> Conclusion of PE1ITR: it's beautiful, but one does not know what one can
do with it... it's ART ! :-)
> ... still:
> - if Delfi C3 has circular polarization, shouldn't both signals have been
the same ?
> - how does this relate to the LCHP/RCHP opposite maximums (see text above)
> Looking forward for your thoughts !
> 73, Henk, PA3GUO
> http://www.qsl.net/pa3guo
Hi Henk, PA3GUO

Delfi-C3 is transmitting circularly polarized no matter if RHCP or LHCP
because it depend on which side the satellite look at your antennas and
more on this later.
As you stated you are receiving with an "X" antenna  made of two linearly
polarized antennas one is oriented at 45° "/" and the other one at  135° "\"

The point here is that the transmitting antenna of Delfi-C3 is not looking
straight boreside at any time to your receiving antennas because the
satellite is slowly tumbling.

If we assume that at a certain time the transmitting and receiving antennas
have been randomly looking straight at each other (coaxial) then a
circularly polarized wave will appear circularly polarized  with the same
amplitude into your "X" antennas.

If the antennas are not looking directly at each other because there is a
continuously variable squint angle with the satellite tumbling then a
circularly polarized wave will appear elliptical to your linearly receiving
"X" antennas.

This effect is easily visualized if you look at a phonograph record ;
looking directly onto the playing surface , it appears round .As the record
(the satellite CP antenna) is rotated toward an edgewiseview ,it appears
more and more elliptical until, when you are looking directly at the edge
of the record, it appears as a straight line.

This effect can be applied here and when your two crossed linearly polarized
"X" antennas are looking directly into a circularly polarized antenna, the
X  components are equal:As one moves around to the edge of the antennas
(satellite tumbling) one of the X linear components increases while the
other X component decreases or approaches to zero.

If the linear component that appears as a straight line is oriented exactly
at 45° "/" with respect to your "X" antennas then the signal received by the
45° "/" antenna is maximum while the signal received by the 135° "\"
antenna is minimum or zero.

Your question 1 :
if Delfi C3 has circular polarization, shouldn't both signals have been the
same ?

My answer 1 :
They are the same strenght only when Delfi C3 and your "X" antennas are
looking straight at each other.

Your question 2 :
how does this relate to the LCHP/RCHP opposite maximums (see text above ) ?

My answer 2 :
If you are receiving a LHCP or RHCP wave with an "X" linearly polarized
antenna the signals is the same but if you receive with a CP antenna the
effect changes.
The antenna of Delfi C3 is made with 2 crossed elements located in the same
To generate circular polarization one element must be feed with a 90° phase
Been the crossed elements in the same plane without any reflector the
antenna radiates RHCP in one axial direction and LHCP in the other
If you receive with a circularly polarized antenna it happens that depending
on wich face the satellite is looking to your "X" antennas you can receive a
RHCP or a LHCP wave and this is why a polarization switcher is necessary.

I have extracted this basic concept from " The Advantages of Circular
Polarization for Amateur Satellite Ground Stations" by John J. Nagle, K4KJ
publisched into the "1975 ARRL Technical Symposium" page 80-87 of text
with 25 pages for drawings and pictures.

73" de

i8CVS Domenico

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