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fahnen/7.jpg Amateur Satellite Summary - AO-16
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Satellite Summary

NASA Catalog Number:20439
Callsigns: Broadcast:PACSAT-11;BBS: PACSAT-12
Launched: January 22, 1990
Launch vehicle: Ariane 4
Launch location: Kourou, French Guiana
Weight: 13.34 kg.
Orbit: Sun-Synchronous near-Polar LEO (Low Earth Orbit)
Inclination: 98 degrees
Size: 226 x 226 x 223 mm
Period: 100.6 minutes


  • 1200 bps AX.25 protocol store-and-forward PACSAT Protocol Suite communications system.
  • Dedicated Store-and-Forward File Server
  • Whole Orbit Data (WDO) Collection
  • Digital Repeater (Digipeater)
  • Very Similar in construction and operation to LO-19, IO-26, and MO-30.
Digital Transponder - Mode JD
  • 1200 bps Manchester FSK Uplinks:
    • 145.900 MHz
    • 145.920 MHz
    • 145.940 MHz
    • 145.960 MHz
  • 1200 bps BPSK Downlinks:
    • 437.051 MHz
    • 437.026 MHz
    • 2401.143 MHz


For a description of AO-16, read John Magliacane's, KD2BD, Spotlight On: The Microsats originally published in The AMSAT Journal.

Telemetry decoding programs are available from the AMSAT anonymous ftp server. Here is a listing of Microsat Programs.

Harold Price, NK6K, has compiled a history of the Microsat program, complete with photographs.


  • D. Conners, "The PACSAT Project,"ARRL Amateur Radio Second Computer Networking Conference, pp. 1-3, March 19, 1983.
  • T. Clark, "AMSAT's Microsat/Pacsat Program,"Proceedings of the AMSAT-NA Sixth Space Symposium, Atlanta, GA, pp. 41-47, Nov 1988, ARRL.
  • L. Johnson and C. Green, "Microsat Project - Flight CPU Hardware,"Proceedings of the AMSAT-NA Sixth Space Symposium, Atlanta, GA, pp. 104-106, Nov 1988, ARRL.
  • H. Price and R. McGwier, "PACSAT Software,"Proceedings of the AMSAT-NA Sixth Space Symposium, Atlanta, GA, pp. 145-149, Nov 1988, ARRL.
  • T. Clark, C. Duncan, J. King, B. McGwier, "The First Flock of Microsats,"The AMSAT Journal, May 1989, pp 3-10.
  • D. Loughmiller and B. McGwier, "Microsat: The Next Generation of OSCAR Satellites," Part 1,QST, May 1989, pp 37-40; Part 2,QST, Jun 1989, pp 53-54.
  • Doug Loughmiller, "Successful OSCAR Launch Ushers in the 90's,"QST, Apr 1990, p. 52.
  • Six for the Price of One - Part I,"The AMSAT Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1, Mar 1990, p. 1; Part II:The AMSAT Journal, Vol. 13, No. 2, May 1990, p. 1.
  • John A. Magliacane, "Spotlight On: The Microsats,"The AMSAT Journal, Vol. 15, No. 4, Sep/Oct 1992
  • Martin Davidoff,The Satellite Experimenter's Handbook, 2nd edition, The American Radio Relay League, Newington, CT., 1990.
  • Mike Crisler,PACSAT Beginner's Guide, AMSAT.

Last update May 31, 2003 - N7HPR

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